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Glossary


 
3G Universal abbreviation for the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology. The first generation (1G) is represented by analogue standards (NMT) and the second generation (2G) is represented by digital standards (GSM). 3G standards include UMTS (the most common 3G standard in Europe), EDGE and HSDPA.
4G 4G is the fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, following the third generation (3G). LTE technology is referred to as 4G.
5G 5G is the fifth generation of mobile networks or wireless data transmission systems. It will be the next major development phase, following the current fourth generation. 5G refers to mobile data transmission systems to be deployed in the 2020s.
ARPU Average revenue per user. However, the calculation principle is average revenue per subscription.

Carrier aggregation

Evolution of LTE technology whereby a customer may simultaneously use two carriers in place of their normal carrier, enabling faster data transfers.
CDP CDP (formerly the “Carbon Disclosure Project”) is an independent non-profit organisation that collects detailed information about climate change mitigation, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. This information is used by investment companies, politicians, different associations, researchers and the press. Many companies and organisations around the world report their operations to CDP.
Churn

Customer turnover. Churn indicates the proportion of customers who have changed to another operator during the reporting period. This figure has been converted to correspond to an annual change.

DNS 

The Domain Name System is the Internet naming system, which translates domain names to IP addresses. Devices connected to the Internet communicate with each other using numerical IP addresses. DNS translates these into more easily recognised names. Email routing is another key purpose of DNS.

DSLAM  A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier is a device that separates voice from data in a client subscription. Voice traffic is forwarded from DSLAM to the telephone exchange. It connects client subscriptions (e.g. ADSL) to the operator's trunk network.

Dual Carrier

3G network sector, or the most commonly, one direction with two or more carriers. Customers can only use one carrier at a time. The sector capacity can be doubled by adding another carrier, while customers' data speed remains the same as in a single carrier sector.

Dual Carrier HSPA

Evolution of HSPA technology whereby a customer who uses an HSPA data connection in place of a normal single carrier can simultaneously use two carriers which, at best, doubles the data speed, while the capacity remains the same as when using a single carrier.

DTT

Digital terrestrial television. Digital television is replacing broadcasts based on analogue signals. Digital technology enables improved image and sound quality, and it uses frequency ranges more efficiently than analogue technology.

Femtocell 

A small base station installed at home, at the office or another indoor facility. It is similar to a WLAN base station, but it transmits a 3G signal and uses an ADSL connection.

FTTB 

Fibre to the building (also “fibre to the basement”). An optical fibre cable connection to a residential property (terraced house or multi-storey building, see MDU).

FTTH 

Fibre to the home. Optical fibre cable connection to a detached house or dwelling (see SDU).

GRI

The Global Reporting Initiative is an international independent organisation. Its aim is to create a universal standard for social sustainability reporting. GRI guidelines are built as a partnership project between different stakeholders. GRI is an independent organisation and a partner of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

HSPA, HSPA+

High-Speed Packet Access is an amalgamation of mobile protocols. It extends and improves the performance of existing UMTS protocols. HSPA+ increases HSPA transfer speeds from a base station to a terminal device to up to 42 Mbit/s, and from a terminal device to a base station to up to 11 Mbit/s.

ICT

Information and communications technology.

IP/MPLS

Internet Protocol/Multiprotocol Label Switching is a data network routing protocol, whereby individual data elements are supplied with separate address records. As a result, data is transferred more quickly than when using conventional routing.

Cable Modem

A cable modem is a terminal device (modem) in a bi-directional cable TV network. A broadband Internet connection is the most common service implemented via a cable modem. Cable modem technology is implemented in the cable TV network on the basis of the specifications of the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS), the de-facto standard.

Broadband

Broadband refers to a high-speed Internet connection. In general, this term covers connections with speeds of at least 512 kbit/s, or 256 kbit/s in Finland according to the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority. According to some definitions, the minimum requirement is 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps or 10 Mbps; the starting point is that the connection must be fast enough for specific service needs, such as streaming TV programmes via the Internet, without any defects in quality.

LAN 

A local area network is a data network operating in a limited area, such as inside a single building.

LTE 

Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is an advanced 3G technology, the purpose of which is to increase mobile data transfer speeds, shorten delays, improve services and reduce costs. Elisa is building new LTE base stations with transfer speeds that can initially rise to close to 100 Mbit/s and, in the future, will even exceed 150 Mbit/s. In this case, the terminal device must support LTE.

Mbit/s

Megabits per second (mega = one million). Data transfer rate. Gbit/s is also commonly used (giga = one billion).

MDU

Multiple dwelling unit. A complex of multiple residences, with separate housing units (such as apartments) forming units of one or more buildings.

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service is a form of mobile communications service whereby multimedia objects, such as images, sound, videos and edited text, can be attached to messages.

MTR

Mobile termination rate. The rate of a call minute or text message that operators charge each other for roaming.

SaaS

Software as a Service means that software is acquired as a service in place of the conventional method of purchasing a licence. Usage is usually charged by volume. There are no customer-specific production environments, and a single production environment serves several or all customers. Customers usually use SaaS using an Internet browser, making deployment easy for users.

SDU

Single dwelling unit. A single family house or dwelling. A dwelling used by a single household, even if it shares one or more walls with another dwelling. Typically, it has direct passage or access to the street, and it does not share heating, water or any other essential services with other apartments.

SMS

Short Message Service, i.e. the mobile text messaging system. Text messages are short messages (originally 160 characters) that are typically sent from one mobile phone to another over the mobile network. Messages are transmitted via an SMS centre, which stores the message until the targeted mobile phone is back online.

Wi-Fi

WLAN products commonly use the term Wi-Fi in their commercial names. Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, and its members use it as a symbol of a specific quality level.

WLAN

A wireless local area network is a technology with which different network devices can be connected to each other without the use of cables. Often, WLAN refers to the IEEE 802.11 standard.

Smartphone

A smartphone is a mobile phone that, in addition to the functions of a conventional mobile phone, includes features of a computer. Even though this definition is not unambiguous, smartphones typically include a graphical user interface, a broad and modifiable range of applications, and an Internet connection.